Chapter 2 – How to Construct Present Sentences

English Communication Syllabus

What is Subject – Verb AGREEMENT ?

In a Present sentence,

Singular Subject must agree with Singular verb

Plural Subject must agree with Plural Verb

[Singular subject] + [Singular verb] ,  [Plural subject] + [Plural verb]

  • S : My brother works, but P : My brothers work
  • S : He is working, but P : They are working
  • S : She has eaten, but P : They have eaten

S = Singular, P = Plural

What is the difference when ‘s’ is used with a noun, and when ‘s’ used with a verb?

Note : ‘s’ is used with nouns to indicate Plural Noun Eg : brothers

‘s’ is used with verb to indicate Singular Verb Eg : works, is, has


PRESENT ACTIONS

There are 3 ways to describe present actions

Simple Present Sentences

[Subject (P)] + [Vs.pr(p)]

[Subject (S)] + [Vs.pr(s)]

  • Vs.pr (p) = take (Verb – simple present plural)
  • Vs.pr (s) = takes (Verb – simple present singular)

Examples :

  • I take the bus to school everyday
  • She takes the bus to school everyday

S = Singular, P = Plural

Continuous Present Sentences

[ I ] + [ am ] + [ Vc ]

[ Subject (S) ] + [ is ] + [ Vc ]

[ Subject (P) ] + [ are ] + [ Vc ]

Vc = Continuous Verb, eg : taking

  • eg : I am taking
  • eg : She is taking
  • eg : They are taking

S = Singular, P = Plural

Non Verb

(Sentences using adjective, preposition, noun)

Note : Whenever there is no verb after a subject, ‘to be’ ie  is, are or am must be used before the adjective, preposition or noun

[ I ] + [ am ] + [ p / a / n ]

[ Subject (S) ] + [ is ] + [ p / a / n ]

[ Subject (P) ] + [ are ] + [ p / a / n ]

  • eg : I am happy, I am here, I am a nurse
  • eg : She is pretty, She is there, She is my wife
  • eg : They are noisy, They are in the room, They are students

S = Singular, P = Plural, p = preposition, a = adjective, n = noun

Present Action  – Giving Answer / Statement

Simple Verb (Vs)

  • I : I take the bus from here everyday. I don’t take the bus everyday
  • S : She takes the bus from here everyday. She doesn’t take the bus everyday
  • P : They take the bus from here everyday. They don’t take the bus everyday

S = Singular, P = Plural

Note : There is a rule in English Grammar that whenever don’t, doesn’t or didn’t are used, the following verb must be Simple Present Plural, eg : don’t take, doesn’t take, didn’t take

Continuous Verb (Vc)

  • I : I am taking the bus now. I am not taking the bus now
  • S : She is taking the bus now. She is not taking the bus now
  • P : They are taking the bus now. They are not taking the bus now

S = Singular, P = Plural

Non Verb : Adjective (a), Preposition (p), Noun (n)

  • I : I am very happy (a). I am not confident (a)
  • S : She is from Penang (p). She is not in her room (p)
  • P : They are students (n). They are not lawyers (n)

S = Singular, P = Plural

More Examples :

  • I eat rice everyday. I don’t eat rice everyday
  • I am eating rice now. I am not eating rice now
  • I am in London now. I am not in KL now
  • She eats rice everyday. She doesn’t eat rice everyday
  • She is eating rice now. She is not eating rice now
  • She is happy today. She is not happy today
  • They eat rice everyday They don’t eat rice everyday
  • They are eating rice now They are not eating rice now
  • They are from England They are not from France

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