Body Parts

DLS Malay Communication Syllabus
  1. Ankle : buku lali
  2. Arm : lengan
  3. Arm pit : ketiak
  4. Ass : punggung
  5. Back : belakang
  6. Body hair : bulu
  7. Body parts : bahagian badan
  8. Breast : payu dara
  9. Cheek : pipi
  10. Chest : dada
  11. Chin : dagu
  12. Ear : telinga
  13. Elbow : siku
  14. Eye : mata
  15. Eye lash : bulu mata
  16. Eye lid : kelopak mata
  17. Face : muka
  18. Finger : jari
  19. Forehead : dahi
  20. Foot print : tapak kaki
  21. Grey hair : uban
  22. Gum : gusi
  23. Hair : rambut
  24. Hand : tangan
  25. Head : kepala
  26. Heart : jantung
  27. Hip : pinggul
  28. Intestine : usus
  29. Kidney : buah pinggang
  30. Knee : lutut
  31. Leg : kaki
  32. Lip : bibir
  33. Liver : hati
  34. Lung : paru-paru
  35. Mole : tahi lalat
  36. Mouth : mulut
  37. Nail (hand) : kuku tangan
  38. Nail (foot) : jari kaki
  39. Naval : pusat
  40. Neck (back) : tengkuk
  41. Neck : leher
  42. Nose : hidung
  43. Nostril : bulu hidung
  44. Palm : tapak tangan
  45. Pimple : jerawat
  46. Pointer finger : jari telunjuk
  47. Private part : kemaluan
  48. Saliva : air liur
  49. Shoulder : bahu
  50. Skin : kulit
  51. Stomach : perut
  52. Sweat : peluh
  53. Tears : air mata
  54. Thigh : peha
  55. Throat : kerongkong
  56. Thumb : ibu jari
  57. Tongue : lidah
  58. Tooth : gigi
  59. Urine : air kencing
  60. Waist : pinggang

Chapter 2 : Malay Nouns and Pronouns

DLS Malay Communication Syllabus

Chapter 2 : Nouns

2.1 Common Nouns

  • Similar to English, common nouns in Malay refers to people, animal and things
  • Singularity and Plurality are shown below :

Singular & Plural

  • office :  pejabat
  • offices :  pejabat-pejabat
  • room :  bilik
  • rooms :  bilik-bilik
  • friend :  kawan
  • friends :  kawan-kawan
  • guest :  tetamu
  • guests :  tetamu-tetamu

2.2 Articles The/This/That/These/Those

  • The position of articles in Bahasa Malaysia is opposite to English, ie on the right of a noun.
  • Usually, ‘the’ in the last noun of a sentence is not translated unless it means ‘that’

Singular Noun  & Plural Noun

  • the office :  pejabat itu
  • the offices :  pejabat-pejabat itu
  • the room :  bilik itu
  • the rooms :  bilik-bilik itu
  • this guest :  tetamu ini
  • these guests :  tetamu-tetamu ini
  • that guest :  tetamu itu
  • those guests :  tetamu-tetamu itu

2.3 Personal Pronouns

Personal Pronouns

  • I :  Saya
  • me :  saya
  • You :  Awak
  • He :  Dia
  • him :  dia / nya
  • She :  Dia
  • her :  dia / nya
  • We :  kita / kami
  • us :  kita / kami
  • They :  Mereka
  • them :  mereka
  • It :  Ia

2.4 Possessive Pronouns

Note :  The position of possessive pronoun in B. Malaysia is opposite to English, ie to the right of a noun

  • my car :  kereta saya
  • my cars :  kereta-kereta saya
  • your house :  rumah awak
  • your houses :  rumah-rumah awak
  • his house :  rumahnya / dia
  • his houses :  rumah-rumahnya / dia
  • her house :  rumahnya / dia
  • her houses :  rumah-rumahnya / dia
  • our house :  rumah kita
  • our houses :  rumah-rumah kita
  • their house :  rumah mereka
  • their houses :  rumah-rumah mereka
  • its kitten :  anaknya
  • its kittens :  anak-anaknya

2.5 Adverbs of Quantity

The position of adverbs of quantity in Bahasa Malaysia is similar to English, ie on the left of a noun

  • a guest :  seorang tetamu
  • many guests :  ramai tetamu
  • one guest :  satu tetamu
  • a few guests :  beberapa tetamu
  • a litte sugar :  sedikit gula
  • a lot of people :  ramai orang
  • a :  satu or se__________
  • many :  banyak (for non-human)
  • a boy :  seorang budak lelaki
  • many :  ramai (for human)
  • a little :  sedikit
  • a lot of :  banyak/ramai
  • a car :  sebuah kereta
  • plenty :  banyak/ramai
  • a bottle of :  sebotol
  • several :  beberapa
  • an egg :  sebiji telur
  • a pencil :  sebatang pensil
  • a knife :  sebilah pisau
  • a cup of coffee :  secawan kopi
  • a packet :  sepaket

Chapter 2 – How to Construct Present Sentences

English Communication Syllabus

What is Subject – Verb AGREEMENT ?

In a Present sentence,

Singular Subject must agree with Singular verb

Plural Subject must agree with Plural Verb

[Singular subject] + [Singular verb] ,  [Plural subject] + [Plural verb]

  • S : My brother works, but P : My brothers work
  • S : He is working, but P : They are working
  • S : She has eaten, but P : They have eaten

S = Singular, P = Plural

What is the difference when ‘s’ is used with a noun, and when ‘s’ used with a verb?

Note : ‘s’ is used with nouns to indicate Plural Noun Eg : brothers

‘s’ is used with verb to indicate Singular Verb Eg : works, is, has


PRESENT ACTIONS

There are 3 ways to describe present actions

Simple Present Sentences

[Subject (P)] + [Vs.pr(p)]

[Subject (S)] + [Vs.pr(s)]

  • Vs.pr (p) = take (Verb – simple present plural)
  • Vs.pr (s) = takes (Verb – simple present singular)

Examples :

  • I take the bus to school everyday
  • She takes the bus to school everyday

S = Singular, P = Plural

Continuous Present Sentences

[ I ] + [ am ] + [ Vc ]

[ Subject (S) ] + [ is ] + [ Vc ]

[ Subject (P) ] + [ are ] + [ Vc ]

Vc = Continuous Verb, eg : taking

  • eg : I am taking
  • eg : She is taking
  • eg : They are taking

S = Singular, P = Plural

Non Verb

(Sentences using adjective, preposition, noun)

Note : Whenever there is no verb after a subject, ‘to be’ ie  is, are or am must be used before the adjective, preposition or noun

[ I ] + [ am ] + [ p / a / n ]

[ Subject (S) ] + [ is ] + [ p / a / n ]

[ Subject (P) ] + [ are ] + [ p / a / n ]

  • eg : I am happy, I am here, I am a nurse
  • eg : She is pretty, She is there, She is my wife
  • eg : They are noisy, They are in the room, They are students

S = Singular, P = Plural, p = preposition, a = adjective, n = noun

Present Action  – Giving Answer / Statement

Simple Verb (Vs)

  • I : I take the bus from here everyday. I don’t take the bus everyday
  • S : She takes the bus from here everyday. She doesn’t take the bus everyday
  • P : They take the bus from here everyday. They don’t take the bus everyday

S = Singular, P = Plural

Note : There is a rule in English Grammar that whenever don’t, doesn’t or didn’t are used, the following verb must be Simple Present Plural, eg : don’t take, doesn’t take, didn’t take

Continuous Verb (Vc)

  • I : I am taking the bus now. I am not taking the bus now
  • S : She is taking the bus now. She is not taking the bus now
  • P : They are taking the bus now. They are not taking the bus now

S = Singular, P = Plural

Non Verb : Adjective (a), Preposition (p), Noun (n)

  • I : I am very happy (a). I am not confident (a)
  • S : She is from Penang (p). She is not in her room (p)
  • P : They are students (n). They are not lawyers (n)

S = Singular, P = Plural

More Examples :

  • I eat rice everyday. I don’t eat rice everyday
  • I am eating rice now. I am not eating rice now
  • I am in London now. I am not in KL now
  • She eats rice everyday. She doesn’t eat rice everyday
  • She is eating rice now. She is not eating rice now
  • She is happy today. She is not happy today
  • They eat rice everyday They don’t eat rice everyday
  • They are eating rice now They are not eating rice now
  • They are from England They are not from France

Chapter 1 – Introduction

English Communication Syllabus

In order to speak or write in English, you need to differentiate the following Groups of WORDS in English :

Nouns (n)

Verbs (v)

Adjectives (a)

Prepositions (p)

Exercise : Write the class of verbs of each word given below (ie n = noun, v = verb, a = adjective or p = preposition)

  • House – n
  • right – p
  • is – v
  • taking – v
  • writes – v
  • was – v
  • worried – a,v
  • Taken – v
  • wrote – v
  • were – v
  • don’t – v
  • Big – a
  • writing – v
  • can – v
  • didn’t – v
  • Small – a
  • I – n
  • scared – a,v

Structure of a sentence

When we speak or write, each sentence should be based on the following structure :

[Subject] + [Verb] + [Object]

=  [noun] + [verb] + [n/ v/ a/ p]

eg : I go to school

What is a SUBJECT ?

Subject is either a noun or subject pronoun (eg he) (but not object pronoun, eg him)

SUBJECT must always match with the VERB

Singular Subject – Singular Verb eg : He is

Plural Subject – Plural Verb eg : We are

In each sentence,

Time must match with PRESENT, PAST or FUTURE VERBS

Present Time – Present Verb eg : I work everyday (present)

Past Time – Past Verb eg : I worked yesterday (past)

Future Time – Future Verb or Present Verb eg : I will work tomorrow (future) Or : I work tomorrow (present)

What is a Verb and how to use it ?

Verbs are actions done by any noun. For Active Voice, there are 3 Families of Verbs :

Simple, Continuous and Perfect

Altogether, there are 5 types of Verbs, ie :

  • 3 types of Simple
  • 1 type of Continuous
  • 1 type of Perfect

Examples :

I take (simple present plural) Simple – with Plural Subject

She takes (simple present singular)

I took (simple past)

He is taking (present continous)

He was taking (past continuous)

They have taken (perfect)

Note : Each Verb has its verb pair when used, and in most cases must AGREE with the Subject, ie Singular/Plural

What is Object ?

Object consists of nouns, object pronouns (eg him), verb infinitives, adjectives, adverbs,

time etc.. It is not always important to determine Singular or Plural noun in Object area,

except for sentences using There is, There are etc..

How to use Object ?

Use the following in Object area : nouns, object pronouns, verb infinitives, preposition, adjective, adverb, time etc..

Eg : me, him, my sister, my sisters, to eat, to see, for working, on, in, at, happy, sad, happily, sadly, yesterday, now