Chapter 6 : How to use Malay Verb

DLS Malay Communication Syllabus

Malay Verbs

There are some similarities between English and Malay verbs such as :

  1. Simple : I work in Malaysia – Saya bekerja di Malaysia
  2. Continuous : I am working – Saya sedang bekerja
  3. Perfect : I have finished work – Saya sudah habis bekerja

Present Actions

There are 2 types of verbs which can be used in present tense :

  1. Simple Verb, eg : I seeSaya lihat
  2. Continuous Verb, eg : I am seeingSaya sedang melihat
  • To indicate do not or does not, use tidak, eg I don’t see – Saya tidak lihat

Note :

  1. All present verb to be ie : ‘is are am’ are changed to ‘sedang’
  2. Continuous action using sedang is best described as action which is currently happening
  3. Note that in English, sometimes continuous action is referred to as future. In Malay continuous action cannot be referred to as future
  4. When using ‘sedang’ it is best to add prefix ‘me’ (pronounced as ‘me’ in ‘mermaid), ie Saya sedang melihat.
  5. Prefix and suffix will be discussed in Level 2. However, it does not change the meaning without using the prefix

Past Actions

There are 3 types of verbs which can be used for past tense :

  1. Simple Verb, eg : I saw Ali just now – Saya berjumpa tadi
  2. Continuous, eg : I was seeing Ali just now – Saya sedang berjumpa Ali tadi
  3. Perfect, eg : I have seen Ali – Saya sudah berjumpa Ali
  • To indicate did not – use ‘tidak‘, eg : I did not see Ali – Saya tidak berjumpa Ali
  • To indicate ‘not yet’ ie have not or has not – use belum, eg : I have not seen Ali – Saya belum berjumpa Ali

Note :

  1. Malay Simple past tense does not exist. Malay uses time to indicate simple past tense.
  2. All past verb to be, ie : ‘was, were‘ are changed to ‘sedang‘. Time is used to indicate past continuous
  3. The word ‘sudah‘ or ‘telah‘ is equivalent to perfect tense in English, which indicates an action has been done
  4. To indicate ‘not yet‘, use have not – belum, eg : I haven’t seen Ali – Saya belum berjumpa Ali

Future Actions

Only Simple Future verb can be used for future tense :

  1. Simple Future, eg : I will seeSaya akan berjumpa

  • To indicate ‘will not or cannot‘ use tidak, eg : I will not see – Saya tidak akan berjumpa

Note :

  1. It is best to use a simple future verb to indicate a future action
  2. Other common future verbs : can – boleh, must – mesti, should – patut, might – mungkin
  3. To indicate ‘not’ for future, use ‘tidak’, eg : I cannot come tomorrow – Saya tidak boleh datang esok

Simple Verbs in Present, Past and Future

Simple Malay verb is the same whether for present tense or past tense. Singular or Plural verbs in Malay do not exist. Study the following sentences :

  1. I eat here everyday : Saya makan di sini setiap hari
  2. She eats here everyday : Dia makan di sini setiap hari
  3. I don’t eat here everyday : Saya tidak makan di sini setiap hari
  4. She doesn’t eat here everyday : Dia tidak makan di sini setiap hari
  5. I ate here yesterday : Saya makan di sini semalam
  6. She ate here yesterday : Dia makan di sini semalam
  7. I didn’t eat here yesterday : Saya tidak makan di sini semalam
  8. She didn’t eat here yesterday : Dia tidak makan di sini semalam

Continuous in Present and Past Tense (cannot be used for future actions)

  1. I am driving now : Saya sedang memandu sekarang
  2. She is driving now : Dia sedang memandu sekarang
  3. They are driving now : Mereka sedang memandu sekarang
  4. I was driving just now : Saya sedang memandu tadi
  5. She was driving just now : Dia sedang memandu tadi
  6. They were driving just now : Mereka sedang memandu tadi
  7. I am not driving now : Saya tidak memandu sekarang
  8. I was not driving just now : Saya tidak memandu tadi
  9. They were not driving just now : Mereka tidak memandu tadi
  10. She was not driving just now : Dia tidak memandu tadi

Note :

  1. There is a spelling change when prefix ‘me’ (pronounced as ‘me’ in ‘mermaid’) is used. Prefix will be discussed in level 2
  2. If prefix ‘me’ is not used, it doesn’t change the meaning at all, however it is best to use prefix ‘me’ (pronounced as ‘me’ in ‘mermaid’) for continuous actions
  3. Prefix ‘me’ can even be used with simple verb without changing the meaning, eg : Saya melihat

Perfect Verbs in Past Actions

  1. I have done the job : Saya telah membuat kerja itu
  2. She has done the job : Dia telah membuat kerja itu
  3. They have done the job : Mereka telah membuat kerja itu
  4. I had done the job yesterday : Saya telah membuat kerja itu semalam
  5. She had done the job yesterday : Dia telah membuat kerja itu semalam
  6. I haven’t done the job yet : Saya belum membuat kerja itu lagi
  7. She hasn’t done the job yet : Dia belum membuat kerja itu lagi

Note :

  1. It is best to use prefix ‘me‘ when using sudah or telah
  2. As a matter of fact, there are 5 types of prefix ‘me’ ie : me, mem, men, meng and meny. These prefix will be discussed in Level 2.
  3. It does not change the meaning if prefix ‘me’ is not used.
  4. In Malay daily conversation, the prefix ‘me’ is often not used. However, in writing, it will show significant grammatical error if ‘me’ is omitted.
  5. Perhaps, getting familiar with prefix ‘me’ can be quite challenging.
  6. Without the knowledge of prefix ‘me’, one may not be able to identify a root verb
  7. Please be sure to follow Syllabus of Level 2 soon.

Sample Sentences

1. I went to Kuala Lumpur yesterday but I did not stay the night there
Saya pergi ke Kuala Lumpur semalam tetapi saya tidak bermalam di sana

2. I bought some sugar but I forgot the coffee
Saya beli sedikit gula tetapi saya lupa kopi

3. She came here but she didn’t say anyhting
Dia datang ke sini tetapi dia tidak berkata apa-apa

4. I want to buy a car but I haven’t saved enough money yet
Saya mahu membeli sebuah kereta tetapi saya belum simpan duit yang cukup lagi

5. I don’t know if I can do it but I will try
Saya tidak pasti kalau saya boleh membuatnya tetapi saya akan cuba

6. I am driving right now, I will call you later
Saya sedang memandu sekarang, saya akan telefon awak nanti

7. They are travelling to the north
Mereka sedang menghala ke utara

8. They haven’t arrived yet, they are still on the way
Mereka belum tiba lagi, mereka masih di dalam perjalanan

9. They can come here but they cannot stay here
Mereka boleh datang ke sini tetapi mereka tidak boleh tinggal di sini

10. I want to go home because I feel sleepy
Saya mahu pulang sebab saya rasa mengantuk

W19 : Passive Voice – Past Action Part 2

English Communication Lesson

Introduction

This lesson is about writing Past passive Questions and Answers using Singular & Plural subjects

Duration : 90 minutes

Learning Outcome

At the end of this lesson, you must be able to :

  • Identify active and passive sentences
  • Know how to use verb to be and perfect verb to construct passive sentences
  • Change active to passive sentences

Video : Coming Soon

Reference : Chapter 8, Chapter 9

Note : Passive voice is desired when writing report, essay, delivering a speech etc.. In this lesson, active questions are converted to passive mode, or better known as passive voice

When using, passive voice, only Perfect Verbs can be used

Exercise 19a : Basic English Communication

Part 1 (Individual Work)

Change the following active questions to passive questions

  1. Did your brother use his car yesterday : ____ his car ______ yesterday?
  2. Did he open the shop yesterday? : ___ his shop ______ yesterday?
  3. Has she reminded you to do it? : ____ you ___________ to do it?
  4. What did he tell the students?  What ______ the students _________ ?
  5. Did he conduct the meeting yesterday? : _____ the meeting _________ yesterday?
  6. Was she inviting them to the ceremony? : _____ they ______________ to the ceremony?
  7. Were they preparing breakfast just now? : ____ the breakfast _____________ just now?
  8. Was he doing the job now? : ____ the job _____________ just now?
  9. Have they found the children? :  ______ the children _______________ ?
  10. Was he washing his car? : ______ his car ________________ ?

Part 2 (Group Work)

Using Singular or Plural subject, write 10 Past passive Questions and Answers about :

The latest game you played

  1. (simple passive) Q : _________________________________
  2. (simple passive) A : _________________________________
  3. (simple passive) Q : _________________________________
  4. (simple passive) A : _________________________________
  5. (simple passive) Q : _________________________________
  6. (simple passive) A : _________________________________
  7. (cont passive) Q : ___________________________________
  8. (cont passive) A : ___________________________________
  9. (cont passive) Q : ___________________________________
  10. (cont passive) A : ___________________________________

Sample Answers

Exercise 19a : Basic English Communication

Part 1 (Individual Work)

Change the following active questions to passive questions

  1. Did your brother use his car yesterday : Was his car used yesterday?
  2. Did he open the shop yesterday? : Was his shop opened yesterday?
  3. Has she reminded you to do it? : Have you been reminded to do it?
  4. What did he tell the students?  What were the students told ?
  5. Did he conduct the meeting yesterday? : Was the meeting conducted yesterday?
  6. Was she inviting them to the ceremony? : Were they being invited to the ceremony?
  7. Were they preparing breakfast just now? : Was the breakfast being prepared just now?
  8. Was he doing the job now? : Was the job being done just now?
  9. Have they found the children? :  Have the children been found ?
  10. Was he washing his car? : Was his car being washed ?

Part 2 (Group Work)

Using Singular or Plural subject, write 10 Past passive Questions and Answers about :

The Money that you found

  1. (simple passive) Q : Where was the money found?
  2. (simple passive) A : It was found on under the pillow
  3. (simple passive) Q : Was it placed there by someone?
  4. (simple passive) A : Certainly it was placed there by someone
  5. (simple passive) Q : Has the money been given away?
  6. (simple passive) A : Yes, the money was given to the warden
  7. (cont passive) Q : How long was the money being kept there?
  8. (cont passive) A : Perhaps, it was being kept for 2 days
  9. (cont passive) Q : When was this incident being reported?
  10. (cont passive) A : It was being reported this morning

Week 18 : Passive Voice – Past Action Part1

English Communication Lesson

Introduction

This lesson is about writing Past passive Statements using Singular & Plural subjects

Duration : 90 minutes

Learning Outcome

At the end of this lesson, you must be able to :

  • Identify active and passive sentences
  • Know how to use verb to be and perfect verb to construct passive sentences
  • Change active to passive sentences

Reference : Chapter 8, Chapter 9

Note : Passive voice is desired when writing report, essay, delivering a speech etc.. In this lesson, active sentences are converted to passive mode, or better known as passive voice

When using, passive voice, only Perfect Verbs can be used

Video : Coming soon

Exercise 18a : Basic Communication English

Part 1 (Individual work)

Change the following active simple and active continuous statements to present simple passive and present continuous passive voice.

  1. My brother used his car yesterday : His car _____________ yesterday
  2. He opened the shop this morning : His shop ____________ this morning
  3. She reminded you to do it : You _____________ to do it
  4. He has taught the students already : The students ______________ already
  5. He conducted a meeting yesterday morning : The meeting _____________ yesterday morning
  6. She was inviting them to the ceremony : They _________________ to the ceremony
  7. They were preparing breakfast just now : The breakfast ______________ just now
  8. He was doing the job just now. The job ________________ just now
  9. They have found the children. The children ________________
  10. He has washed his car already: His car _________________ already

Part 2 (Group Work)

Using Singular or Plural subject, write 10 Past passive Statements about :

Last School Holidays

  1. (simple past passive) A : ________________________________________
  2. (simple past passive) A : ________________________________________
  3. (simple past passive) A :________________________________________
  4. (simple past passive) A : ________________________________________
  5. (simple past passive) A : ________________________________________
  6. (simple past passive) A : ________________________________________
  7. (simple past passive) A : ________________________________________
  8. (simple past passive) A : ________________________________________
  9. (cont past passive) A : __________________________________________
  10. (cont past passive) A :__________________________________________

Sample Answers

Exercise 18a : Basic Communication English

Part 1 (Individual work)

Change the following active simple and active continuous statements to present simple passive and present continuous passive voice.

  1. My brother used his car yesterday : His car was used yesterday
  2. He opened the shop this morning : His shop was opened this morning
  3. She reminded you to do it : You were reminded to do it
  4. He has taught the students already : The students have been taught already
  5. He conducted a meeting yesterday morning : The meeting was conducted yesterday morning
  6. She was inviting them to the ceremony : They were being invited to the ceremony
  7. They were preparing breakfast just now : The breakfast was being prepared just now
  8. He was doing the job just now. The job was being done just now
  9. They have found the children. The children have been found
  10. He has washed his car already: His car has been washed already

Part 2 (Group Work)

Using Singular or Plural subject, write 10 Past passive Statements about :

Last School Holidays

  1. (simple past passive) A : Our trip was held at Cameron Highland
  2. (simple past passive) A : Our tickets were purchased by the committe
  3. (simple past passive) A : We we fetched by a bus when we arrived Kuala Perlis
  4. (simple past passive) A : We were taken to many interesting places
  5. (simple past passive) A : Each room was shared by 2 persons
  6. (simple past passive) A : Our meals was prepared by a great chef
  7. (simple past passive) A : Many pictures were taken along the way
  8. (simple past passive) A : We were treated well at the hotel
  9. (cont past passive) A : Our photos were being developed at the shop
  10. (cont past passive) A : Initially, the trip was going to be arranged by the Red Cross Society

Week 5B : Recreation Communication

Hospitality English Program

Introduction

This lesson is about writing Present, Future and Past Questions and Answers using Singular & Plural subjects

Duration : 120 minutes

Learning Outcome

At the end of this lesson, you must be able to :

  • Use Plural Subject with Present, Future & Past Simple or Continuous Verb
  • Use Singular Subject with Present, Future & Past Simple Verb in Question and Answer
  • Use Singular & Plural Subject with Non-verb in Question and Answer

Reference : Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7

Recreation Activities

Exercise 5b : Hospitality English Communication

Part 1 (Group work)

Fill in the blanks with appropriate answer based on the verb or non-verb used in the questions

  1. Do you have italian speed boats ? No, We ____________ it at the moment.
  2. Did Mr Ron hit the rock with the boat ? Yes, He _____________ it yesterday.
  3. Did you send him to the hospital ? Yes, We ______________ him there.
  4. How was he after that? He _____________ alright.
  5. What did the doctor say ? The doctor __________ nothing to worry about
  6. When did you start this service? We __________ it last 5 years.
  7. How many boats did you have in the beginning ? We only _________ 3 boats.
  8. How many boats do you have now? Now we ______________ 10 boats.
  9. Are they all functioning? Yes, they ______all __________
  10. May I try the boat? Certainly Sir, You ______________ it.

Part 2 (Group Work)

Using subject Plural subject (eg : the customer), write 10 past sentences about :

Recreation activities

  1. (simple verb) Q : ____________________________________
  2. (simple verb) A : ____________________________________
  3. (simple verb) Q : ____________________________________
  4. (simple verb) A : ____________________________________
  5. (cont verb) Q : ______________________________________
  6. (cont verb) A : ______________________________________
  7. (adjective) Q : ______________________________________
  8. (adjective) A : ______________________________________
  9. (prep / noun) Q : ____________________________________
  10. (prep / noun) A : ____________________________________

Sample Answers

Exercise 5b : Hospitality English Communication

Part 1 (Individual work)

Fill in the blanks with appropriate answer based on the verb or non-verb used in the questions

  1. Do you have italian speed boats ? No, We ____________ it at the moment.
  2. Did Mr Ron hit the rock with the boat ? Yes, He _____________ it yesterday.
  3. Did you send him to the hospital ? Yes, We ______________ him there.
  4. How was he after that? He _____________ alright.
  5. What did the doctor say ? The doctor __________ nothing to worry about
  6. When did you start this service? We __________ it last 5 years.
  7. How many boats did you have in the beginning ? We only _________ 3 boats.
  8. How many boats do you have now? Now we ______________ 10 boats.
  9. Are they all functioning? Yes, they ______all __________
  10. May I try the boat? Certainly Sir, You ______________ it.

Part 2 (Group Work)

Using subject Plural subject (eg : the customer), write 10 past sentences about :

Recreation activities

  1. (simple verb) Q : Did you rent the boat from here
  2. (simple verb) A : Yes, I rent it from here
  3. (simple verb) Q : How much did you pay for the rental?
  4. (simple verb) A : I paid only RM30
  5. (cont verb) Q : Were you enjoying your ride?
  6. (cont verb) A : Yes, I was enjoying it so much
  7. (adjective) Q : Were you satisfied with the boat?
  8. (adjective) A : Indeed, I was very satisfied
  9. (prep / noun) Q : What time were you there?
  10. (prep / noun) A : I was there about 5pm

Conclusion

1. In Future Simple Present Tense

  • A Singular subject combines directly with a Future Verb, eg : He can go
  • In a Question, Use ‘future verb’ before a subject, followed by a simple verb, eg : Can he go?

2. In Future Continuous Tense

  • Singular or Plural Subject is used with ‘future verb’ followed by ‘be’ and a continuous verb, eg : He will be going
  • The position of ‘future verb’ is reversed in Question, eg : Will he be going?

3. In sentences using an adjective or preposition, the use of future verb is similar to continuous verb, eg : He will be happy, He will be here, Will he be happy?

4. Common errors to avoid : He will be go, He will going

Week 8 : Past Actions Singular – Part2

English Communication Lesson

Introduction

This lesson is about writing past action sentences using simple, continuous and perfect verb and Singular subject

Duration : 90 minutes

Learning Outcome

At the end of this lesson, you must be able to :

  • Identify  Simple Past, Perfect or Past Continuous Verb
  • Identify and use Past Action verbs in Question and Answer

Watch the following video and identify the Past Tense Verbs used

Reference : Chapter 6Chapter 7

Lecture

  • Class discussion : Tell us what was your friend’s activities yesterday?
  • What, Where, Why, When, With Whom did he/she do it? – Discuss
  • What sorts of NOUNS have you used in the discussion?
  • What types of VERBS have you used in the discussion?
  • Have you used any Adjectives and Prepositions?
  • Have you arranged all your Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives and Preposition correctly?
  • Let’s discuss

Activity – Work in pairs

  • Take turn to ask your partner of his/her friend’s activities yesterday

Exercise 1a : Basic English Communication

Part 1 (Individual work)

Fill in the blanks with appropriate answer based on the verb or non-verb used in the questions

  1. Where did she live before this? She ____________ in Johore
  2. What time did she wake up yesterday? She _____________ at 6 o’clock in the morning.
  3. Where was she studying before? She ______________ at SMK Mahsuri
  4. Was she happy to study there? Yes, She _____________ very happy to study there.
  5. What time did she eat lunch yesterday? She ______________ lunch about 1.00pm
  6. Was she in the class just now? Yes, he __________ in the class with my friends.
  7. What were you doing there? She _________________ english
  8. What form was she in last year? She ______________ in form 4
  9. Has she done her homework already? Yes, She _______________it already
  10. How many times has she tried to call me? She ______________ to call you 3 times

Part 2 (Group Work – Work in pairs)

Using subject Singular, write 10 present sentences (using instruction in bracket) about :

Our daily activities

  1. (simple) Q ______________________________________________
  2. (simple) A ______________________________________________
  3. (simple) Q ______________________________________________
  4. (simple) A ______________________________________________
  5. (continuous) Q __________________________________________
  6. (continuous) A __________________________________________
  7. (preposition) Q ____________________________________________
  8. (preposiiton) A ___________________________________________
  9. (perfect) Q ______________________________________________
  10. (perfect) A ______________________________________________

Sample Answers

Part 1 (Individual work)

Fill in the blanks with appropriate answer based on the verb or non-verb used in the questions

  1. Where did she live before this? She lived in Johore
  2. What time did she wake up yesterday? She woke up at 6 o’clock in the morning.
  3. Where was she studying before? She was studying at SMK Mahsuri
  4. Was she happy to study there? Yes, She was very happy to study there.
  5. What time did she eat lunch yesterday? She ate lunch about 1.00pm
  6. Was she in the class just now? Yes, She was in the class with my friends.
  7. What was she doing there? She was learning english
  8. What form was she in last year? She was in form 4
  9. Has she done her homework already? Yes, She has done it already
  10. How many times has she tried to call me? She has tried to call you 3 times

Part 2 (Group Work)

Using subject I and You, write 10 present sentences (using instruction in bracket) about :

Our daily activities

  1. (simple) Q : Where did she go just now?
  2. (simple) A : She went to the shop
  3. (simple) Q : What did she buy there?
  4. (simple) A : She bought some food
  5. (continuous) Q : What was she doing there?
  6. (continuous) A : She was talking to a friend
  7. (preposition) Q : Was she in the shop?
  8. (preposition) A : Yes, She was in the shop
  9. (perfect) Q : Has she paid your bill?
  10. (perfect) A : Yes, She has already paid it

Conclusion

1. In Simple Past Tense

  • A Singular subject combines directly with a Simple Plural Verb, eg : She went
  • In a Question, Use ‘did’ before a subject, followed by a simple verb, eg : Did she go?

2. In Past Continuous Tense

  • I & She is used with ‘was’ followed by a continuous verb, eg : She was going
  • You & Plural subject are used with were followed by a continuous verb, eg : You were going
  • The position of ‘was’ and ‘were’ are reversed in Question, eg : Were you going? Was I going? was she going?

3. In Perfect Verb

  • Singular subject is used with ‘has’ followed by a perfect verb
  • The position of ‘has’ is reversed in question, eg : Has she done it?

4. In sentences using an adjective or preposition, the use of ‘is’ is similar to continuous verb, eg : She was happy, Was she happy?

5. Common errors to avoid : She was go, She going, Was she go? Did she going? Did she happy?