Chapter 5A : How to use Preposition

DLS Malay Communication Syllabus

Preposition

Literally, ‘di’ means ‘at‘ when used with preposition. There is another ‘di’ in Malay used with verb for passive voice

Preposition : He is in the office – Dia berada di pejabat / Dia di pejabat
Passive Voice : He is promoted – Dia dinaikkan pangkat

Note :

  1. When using ‘di’ with preposition, space must be used : di sana (there)
  2. When using ‘di’ with verb in passive voice, it must be intact (no space) : dibawa (brought)
  3. Please note that a few prepositions do not use ‘di’, eg : dengan (with), jauh (far), dari (from)
  4. Officially, all prepositions used with ‘verb to be’ need to be used with the word ‘berada’ – literally means located : He is here – Dia berada di sini
  5. In a sentence where preposition is used with verb, the word ‘berada’ cannot be used, eg : I sleep in the room – Saya tidur di dalam bilik
  6. In daily conversation, it is very common that ‘berada’ is either shortened as ‘ada’, or it may totally be omitted : Dia ada di sini / Dia di sini
  7. It is also common for the Malays to replace ‘di’ with ‘dekat’ (means near) and sometimes combined with ‘ada’ (means exist) in their conversation : He is here – Dia dekat sini / Dia ada dekat sini

Listed below are some common prepositions used in our daily conversation :

  • at : di
  • at : pada (used to indicate time)
  • at the corner : di penjuru
  • on : di atas
  • on 5th floor : di tingkat lima
  • on top floor : di tingkat paling atas
  • on ground floor : di paras jalanraya (road level)
  • on the body part : di bahagian badan
  • above : di atas
  • in : di dalam
  • inside : di dalam
  • into : ke dalam
  • middle : di tengah
  • outside : di luar
  • with : dengan
  • without : tanpa
  • by : dengan
  • under : di bawah
  • below : di bawah
  • far : jauh
  • far from : jauh dari
  • not far from : tidak jauh dari
  • near : dekat
  • nearby : dekat dengan / berhampiran dengan
  • beside : di sebelah
  • behind : di belakang
  • infront of : di hadapan
  • opposite of : bertentangan dengan
  • at the end of : di hujung
  • here : di sini
  • there : di sana / di situ
  • over there : di sana
  • on the left : di sebelah kiri
  • on the right : di sebelah kanan
  • in the middle : di tengah
  • straight on : terus
  • from : dari
  • to : ke
  • there : di sana
  • far : jauh
  • through : melalui
  • everwhere : di mana-mana sahaja
  • elsewhere : di tempat lain
  • around : di sekitar

Sample Conversation :

Remember : berada can be replaced with ‘ada’ or totally omitted

  1. I am from Europe : Saya dari Eropah (berada cannot be used with dari)
  2. He is with her sister : Dia berada dengan adiknya
  3. They are in the room : Mereka berada di dalam bilik
  4. The food is on the table : Makanan itu berada di atas meja
  5. I put the money in the drawer : Saya letak duit itu di dalam laci (verb is used with preposition, therefore berada cannot be used)
  6. The shop is over there : Kedai itu di sana
  7. He lives above : Dia tinggal di atas
  8. He is on 7th floor : Dia berada di tingkat tujuh
  9. The bank is opposite the shop : Bank itu bertentangan dengan kedai itu
  10. Your friend is here : Kawan awak ada di sini


Week 3B : Restaurant Communication1

Hospitality English Program

Introduction

This lesson is about writing simple and continuous sentences using Singular subject

Duration : 120 minutes

Learning Outcome

At the end of this lesson, you must be able to :

  • Identify Singular Subject and know how to match it with Simple or Continuous Verb
  • Identify and use Simple Present Verb in Question and Answer
  • Identify and use Present Continuous Verb in Question and Answer

Reference : Chapter 1, Chapter 2Chapter 3

Watch this video and identify the simple or continuous verbs used

Lecture

  • Class discussion : Tell us what are your friend’s activities?
  • What, Where, Why, When, With Whom does he do it? – Discuss
  • What sorts of NOUNS have you used in the discussion?
  • What types of VERBS have you used in the discussion?
  • Have you used any Adjectives and Prepositions?
  • Have you arranged all your Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives and Preposition correctly?
  • Let’s discuss

Activity – Work in pairs

  • Take turn to ask your partner of his/her daily activities
  • Report/Present his/her activities to the class

Exercise 3b : Basic English Communication

Part 1 (Group work)

Fill in the blanks with appropriate answer based on the verb or non-verb used in the questions

  1. Which room does Mr Alex stay ? He ____________ in room 325
  2. What time does he wish a wake up call? He _____________ a wake up call at 6 o’clock
  3. When is he going to the mangrove? He ______________ there tomorrow
  4. Is he happy to stay here? Yes, He _____________ very happy to stay here.
  5. What time does he like to eat lunch? He ______________ to eat lunch about 1.00pm
  6. Is he in the room now? Yes, He __________ in the room now.
  7. What is he saying ? He _________________ that the food is nice
  8. Which country is he from ? He ______________ from Switzerland
  9. Does he always arrive early for breakfast? Yes, He always____________ early
  10. How many times does he go for a jog in a week? He ______________ once a week

Part 2 (Group Work)

Using Singular subject (eg : he),write 10 present sentences (using instruction in bracket) about :

Your friend’s daily activities at work

  1. (simple verb) Q ______________________________________________
  2. (simple verb) A ______________________________________________
  3. (simple verb) Q ______________________________________________
  4. (simple verb) A ______________________________________________
  5. (cont verb) Q ________________________________________________
  6. (cont verb) A ________________________________________________
  7. (adjective) Q ________________________________________________
  8. (adjective) A ________________________________________________
  9. (prep / noun) Q ______________________________________________
  10. (prep / noun) A ______________________________________________

Sample Answers

Part 1 (Group work)

Fill in the blanks with appropriate answer based on the verb or non-verb used in the questions

  1. Which room does Mr Alex stay ? He stays in room 325
  2. What time does he wish a wake up call? He wishes a wake up call at 6 o’clock
  3. When is he going to the mangrove? He is going there tomorrow
  4. Is he happy to stay here? Yes, He is very happy to stay here.
  5. What time does he like to eat lunch? He likes to eat lunch about 1.00pm
  6. Is he in the room now? Yes, He is in the room now.
  7. What is he saying ? He is saying that the food is nice
  8. Which country is he from ? He is from Switzerland
  9. Does he always arrive early for breakfast? Yes, He always arrives early
  10. How many times does he go for a jog in a week? He goes once a week

Part 2 (Group Work)

Using subject I and You, write 10 present sentences (using instruction in bracket) about :

My daily activities

  1. (simple verb) Q : What time does he arrive at work everyday?
  2. (simple verb) A : He arrives at 6.45am
  3. (simple verb) Q : What does he do at work?
  4. (simple verb) A : Usually He serves customers at the restaurant
  5. (cont verb) Q : Is he going anywhere tomorrow?
  6. (cont verb) A : Yes, He is going to the night market
  7. (adjective) Q : Is he happy to work here?
  8. (adjective) A : Yes, indeed He is very happy
  9. (prep / noun) Q : Is he on holidays now?
  10. (prep / noun) A : Oh no, He is not on holidays anymore

Conclusion

1. In Simple Present Tense

  • A Singular subject combines directly with a Simple Plural Verb, eg : he goes
  • In a Question, Use ‘does’ before a subject, followed by a simple verb, eg : Does he go?

2. In Present Continuous Tense

  • He is used with ‘is’ followed by a continuous verb, eg : He is going
  • The position of ‘is’ is reversed in Question, eg : Is he going?

3. In sentences using an adjective or preposition, the use of ‘is’ is similar to continuous verb, eg : He is happy, Is he happy?

4. Common errors to avoid : He is go, He going, Is he go? Does he going? Does he happy?

Preposition – Bedroom

Chapter 3 : Present Tense Questions

English Communication Syllabus

How to Construct Present Tense Questions?

Simple Present Questions

[do] + [Subject (P)] + [Vs.pr]

[does] + [Subject (S)] + [Vs.pr]

  • Vs.pr (p) = take (Verb – simple present plural)
  • Note : takes (simple present singular verb) is not used in Questions using does!!

Examples :

  • Do you take the bus to school everyday?
  • Does she take the bus to school everyday

S = Singular, P = Plural

Continuous Present Questions

[ Am ] + [ I ] + [ Vc ]

[Is] + [ Subject (S) ] + [ Vc ]

[Are] + [ Subject (P) ] + [ Vc ]

Vc = Continuous Verb, eg : taking

  • eg : Am I taking your time?
  • eg : Is she taking your time?
  • eg : Are they taking your time?

S = Singular, P = Plural

Non-Verb Questions

(Questions using adjective, preposition, noun)

Note : Whenever there is adjective, preposition or noun after a subject, ‘to be’ ie  is, are or am must be used before the subject

[ Am ] + [ I ] + [ p / a / n ]

[ Is ] + [Subject (S) ] + [ p / a / n ]

[ Are ] +  [Subject (P) ] + [ p / a / n ]

  • eg : Am I happy?, Why I am here?, Am I a good nurse?
  • eg : Is she pretty?, Is she there?, Is she a housewife?
  • eg : Are they noisy?, Are they in the room?, Are they students?

S = Singular, P = Plural, p = preposition, a = adjective, n = noun

Examples :

Simple Verb (Vs) Questions

  • P : Do you take the bus from here everyday? Don’t you take the bus here everyday?
  • S : Does she take the bus from here everyday? Doesn’t she take the bus here everyday?

Continuous Verb (Vc) Questions

  • I : Amtaking the bus with you? Am I not taking the bus with you?
  • S : Is she taking the bus now? Isn’t she taking the bus now?
  • P : Are they taking the bus now? Aren’t they taking the bus now?

Non Verb (Adjective, Preposition, Noun) Questions

  • I : Amhappy ? Am I not confident ?
  • S : Is she from Penang ? Isn’t she in her room ?
  • P : Are they students ? Aren’t they lawyers ?

More Question Examples :

Singular Subject

  • S : Does she eat rice everyday? Doesn’t she eat rice everyday?
  • S : Is she eating rice now? Isn’t she eating rice now?
  • S : Is she here now? Isn’t she here yet?

Plural Subject

  • P : Do they eat rice everyday? Don’t they eat rice everyday?
  • P : Are they eating rice now? Aren’t they eating rice now?
  • P : Are they here now? Aren’t they here yet?

Chapter 2 – How to Construct Present Sentences

English Communication Syllabus

What is Subject – Verb AGREEMENT ?

In a Present sentence,

Singular Subject must agree with Singular verb

Plural Subject must agree with Plural Verb

[Singular subject] + [Singular verb] ,  [Plural subject] + [Plural verb]

  • S : My brother works, but P : My brothers work
  • S : He is working, but P : They are working
  • S : She has eaten, but P : They have eaten

S = Singular, P = Plural

What is the difference when ‘s’ is used with a noun, and when ‘s’ used with a verb?

Note : ‘s’ is used with nouns to indicate Plural Noun Eg : brothers

‘s’ is used with verb to indicate Singular Verb Eg : works, is, has


PRESENT ACTIONS

There are 3 ways to describe present actions

Simple Present Sentences

[Subject (P)] + [Vs.pr(p)]

[Subject (S)] + [Vs.pr(s)]

  • Vs.pr (p) = take (Verb – simple present plural)
  • Vs.pr (s) = takes (Verb – simple present singular)

Examples :

  • I take the bus to school everyday
  • She takes the bus to school everyday

S = Singular, P = Plural

Continuous Present Sentences

[ I ] + [ am ] + [ Vc ]

[ Subject (S) ] + [ is ] + [ Vc ]

[ Subject (P) ] + [ are ] + [ Vc ]

Vc = Continuous Verb, eg : taking

  • eg : I am taking
  • eg : She is taking
  • eg : They are taking

S = Singular, P = Plural

Non Verb

(Sentences using adjective, preposition, noun)

Note : Whenever there is no verb after a subject, ‘to be’ ie  is, are or am must be used before the adjective, preposition or noun

[ I ] + [ am ] + [ p / a / n ]

[ Subject (S) ] + [ is ] + [ p / a / n ]

[ Subject (P) ] + [ are ] + [ p / a / n ]

  • eg : I am happy, I am here, I am a nurse
  • eg : She is pretty, She is there, She is my wife
  • eg : They are noisy, They are in the room, They are students

S = Singular, P = Plural, p = preposition, a = adjective, n = noun

Present Action  – Giving Answer / Statement

Simple Verb (Vs)

  • I : I take the bus from here everyday. I don’t take the bus everyday
  • S : She takes the bus from here everyday. She doesn’t take the bus everyday
  • P : They take the bus from here everyday. They don’t take the bus everyday

S = Singular, P = Plural

Note : There is a rule in English Grammar that whenever don’t, doesn’t or didn’t are used, the following verb must be Simple Present Plural, eg : don’t take, doesn’t take, didn’t take

Continuous Verb (Vc)

  • I : I am taking the bus now. I am not taking the bus now
  • S : She is taking the bus now. She is not taking the bus now
  • P : They are taking the bus now. They are not taking the bus now

S = Singular, P = Plural

Non Verb : Adjective (a), Preposition (p), Noun (n)

  • I : I am very happy (a). I am not confident (a)
  • S : She is from Penang (p). She is not in her room (p)
  • P : They are students (n). They are not lawyers (n)

S = Singular, P = Plural

More Examples :

  • I eat rice everyday. I don’t eat rice everyday
  • I am eating rice now. I am not eating rice now
  • I am in London now. I am not in KL now
  • She eats rice everyday. She doesn’t eat rice everyday
  • She is eating rice now. She is not eating rice now
  • She is happy today. She is not happy today
  • They eat rice everyday They don’t eat rice everyday
  • They are eating rice now They are not eating rice now
  • They are from England They are not from France

Chapter 1 – Introduction

English Communication Syllabus

In order to speak or write in English, you need to differentiate the following Groups of WORDS in English :

Nouns (n)

Verbs (v)

Adjectives (a)

Prepositions (p)

Exercise : Write the class of verbs of each word given below (ie n = noun, v = verb, a = adjective or p = preposition)

  • House – n
  • right – p
  • is – v
  • taking – v
  • writes – v
  • was – v
  • worried – a,v
  • Taken – v
  • wrote – v
  • were – v
  • don’t – v
  • Big – a
  • writing – v
  • can – v
  • didn’t – v
  • Small – a
  • I – n
  • scared – a,v

Structure of a sentence

When we speak or write, each sentence should be based on the following structure :

[Subject] + [Verb] + [Object]

=  [noun] + [verb] + [n/ v/ a/ p]

eg : I go to school

What is a SUBJECT ?

Subject is either a noun or subject pronoun (eg he) (but not object pronoun, eg him)

SUBJECT must always match with the VERB

Singular Subject – Singular Verb eg : He is

Plural Subject – Plural Verb eg : We are

In each sentence,

Time must match with PRESENT, PAST or FUTURE VERBS

Present Time – Present Verb eg : I work everyday (present)

Past Time – Past Verb eg : I worked yesterday (past)

Future Time – Future Verb or Present Verb eg : I will work tomorrow (future) Or : I work tomorrow (present)

What is a Verb and how to use it ?

Verbs are actions done by any noun. For Active Voice, there are 3 Families of Verbs :

Simple, Continuous and Perfect

Altogether, there are 5 types of Verbs, ie :

  • 3 types of Simple
  • 1 type of Continuous
  • 1 type of Perfect

Examples :

I take (simple present plural) Simple – with Plural Subject

She takes (simple present singular)

I took (simple past)

He is taking (present continous)

He was taking (past continuous)

They have taken (perfect)

Note : Each Verb has its verb pair when used, and in most cases must AGREE with the Subject, ie Singular/Plural

What is Object ?

Object consists of nouns, object pronouns (eg him), verb infinitives, adjectives, adverbs,

time etc.. It is not always important to determine Singular or Plural noun in Object area,

except for sentences using There is, There are etc..

How to use Object ?

Use the following in Object area : nouns, object pronouns, verb infinitives, preposition, adjective, adverb, time etc..

Eg : me, him, my sister, my sisters, to eat, to see, for working, on, in, at, happy, sad, happily, sadly, yesterday, now

Langkawi Plaza 5b

Dialogue

There are many banks located in Kuah
Terdapat banyak bank di Kuah
This is CIMB,
Ini ialah CIMB
Next to CIMB there is Maybank Berhad
Di sebelah CIMB, ada Maybank Berhad
And opposite of Maybank,
Bertentangan dengan Maybank,
There is another bank which is called RHB
Terdapat satu lagi bank yang dinamakan RHB

Lesson : Preposition (Kata arah), Terdapat

1. Perkataan untuk terdapat di dalam B.I ialah there is atau there are, bergantung dengan katanama yang dimaksudkan (iaitu samada satu atau banyak)
There is a bank here
There are many banks here
2. Next to bermaksud : di sebelah
3. Opposite of : bermaksud : bertentangan
4. Di dalam preposition, sesetengah preposition menggunakan pasangan tetap seperti opposite of, infront of, next to dsb..

Langkawi Plaza 5a
Langkawi Plaza 5b
Langkawi Plaza 5c

Langkawi Plaza 5c

Dialogue

Right in the middle of Kuah town,
Di tengah-tengah bandar Kuah
You can see another shopping centre
Anda boleh melihat satu lagi pusat membeli-belah
And this is called Langkawi Plaza
Dan ini dinamakan Langkawi Plaza
Langkawi Plaza is located right next to The Bayview Hotel
Langkawi Plaza terletak bersebelahan Hotel Bayview

Lesson : Preposition (Kata Arah)

1. right in the middle bermaksud : betul-betul di tengah
2. is located bermaksud : terletak
3. next to bermaksud : di sebelah, tetapi right next to bermaksud : betul-betul di sebelah
4. Apabila menggunakan preposition, verb to be (iaitu : is, are atau am) hendaklah digunakan selepas subject. The plaza is, The banks are, I am
Contoh :
The plaza is here
The plaza is next to The Bayview Hotel

Langkawi Plaza 5a
Langkawi Plaza 5b
Langkawi Plaza 5c

Providing Info 2, Airport

Dialogue
This is Langkawi Airport
Ini ialah lapangan terbang Langkawi
And this is Malaysian Airline counter
Dan ini ialah kaunter malaysian Airline
That is the AirAsia Counter
Itu ialah kaunter AirAsia
The bank is right at the end there
Bank terletak di hujung sana
There is a cafe towards the end too
Ada sebuah kafe di hujung sana juga
They also have chocolate shops around here and many other souvenir shops
Mereka ada kedai-kedai cokelat di sekitart sini dan banyak lagi kedai cenderamata
There is always something on sale
Selalu ada jualan murah di sini

Lesson : Singular & Plural, Preposition
1. Apabila memperkenalkan sesuatu menggunakan this atau that, perkataan is hendaklah digunakan
That is a bank
This is Malaysian airport

2. Apabila menunjuk arah menggunakan subject singular, perkataan is hendaklah digunakan
The bank is here
The chocolate shop is there

3. Ada di dalam B.I ialah there is untuk satu benda, dan there are untuk banyak benda
There is a bank there
There are many shops here