Chapter 1 – Introduction

English Communication Syllabus

In order to speak or write in English, you need to differentiate the following Groups of WORDS in English :

Nouns (n)

Verbs (v)

Adjectives (a)

Prepositions (p)

Exercise : Write the class of verbs of each word given below (ie n = noun, v = verb, a = adjective or p = preposition)

  • House – n
  • right – p
  • is – v
  • taking – v
  • writes – v
  • was – v
  • worried – a,v
  • Taken – v
  • wrote – v
  • were – v
  • don’t – v
  • Big – a
  • writing – v
  • can – v
  • didn’t – v
  • Small – a
  • I – n
  • scared – a,v

Structure of a sentence

When we speak or write, each sentence should be based on the following structure :

[Subject] + [Verb] + [Object]

=  [noun] + [verb] + [n/ v/ a/ p]

eg : I go to school

What is a SUBJECT ?

Subject is either a noun or subject pronoun (eg he) (but not object pronoun, eg him)

SUBJECT must always match with the VERB

Singular Subject – Singular Verb eg : He is

Plural Subject – Plural Verb eg : We are

In each sentence,

Time must match with PRESENT, PAST or FUTURE VERBS

Present Time – Present Verb eg : I work everyday (present)

Past Time – Past Verb eg : I worked yesterday (past)

Future Time – Future Verb or Present Verb eg : I will work tomorrow (future) Or : I work tomorrow (present)

What is a Verb and how to use it ?

Verbs are actions done by any noun. For Active Voice, there are 3 Families of Verbs :

Simple, Continuous and Perfect

Altogether, there are 5 types of Verbs, ie :

  • 3 types of Simple
  • 1 type of Continuous
  • 1 type of Perfect

Examples :

I take (simple present plural) Simple – with Plural Subject

She takes (simple present singular)

I took (simple past)

He is taking (present continous)

He was taking (past continuous)

They have taken (perfect)

Note : Each Verb has its verb pair when used, and in most cases must AGREE with the Subject, ie Singular/Plural

What is Object ?

Object consists of nouns, object pronouns (eg him), verb infinitives, adjectives, adverbs,

time etc.. It is not always important to determine Singular or Plural noun in Object area,

except for sentences using There is, There are etc..

How to use Object ?

Use the following in Object area : nouns, object pronouns, verb infinitives, preposition, adjective, adverb, time etc..

Eg : me, him, my sister, my sisters, to eat, to see, for working, on, in, at, happy, sad, happily, sadly, yesterday, now